A total organic carbon analyzer (also referred to as TOC analyzers) measures the amount of total organic carbon present in a liquid or water sample. TOC detection is important because of the effects that TOCs may have on health, not to mention the environmental effects and implications for the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Since all total organic carbon analyzers only measure total carbon, a TOC analyzer always requires some accounting for the inorganic carbon (IC) that is always present. TOC analyzers, including a portable TOC analyzer, utilize the same basic technique where acid is added to the liquid sample to remove IC. At this point, the IC is converted into carbon dioxide gas. It is then stripped out of the liquid by a carrier gas where the remaining inorganic carbon-free sample is then oxidized and the carbon dioxide generated from the oxidation process is directly related to the TOC total organic carbon in the sample. There are several methods for introducing the sample to TOC analyzers, including using a syringe, autosampler, and loop sampling. An important specification for total organic carbon analyzers is the measuring range. Carrier gas flow rate, average analysis time and process temperature are important as well for total organic carbon analysis.